THE CIRCUMSTANCES OR HIS ARREST,
AND COMMITMENT TO PRISON
When, by the good hand of my God, I had for five or six years together, without any great interruption, freely preached the blessed Gospel of our Lord Jesus Christ; and had also, through his blessed grace, some encouragement by his blessing thereupon; the Devil, that old enemy of man's salvation, took his opportunity to inflame the hearts of his vassals against me, insomuch, that at the last I was laid out for, by the warrant of a justice, and was taken and committed to prison. The relation thereof is as follows:
Upon the 12th of this instant, November, 1660, I was desired by some of the friends in the country to come to teach at Samfell, by Harlington, in Bedfordshire. To whom I made a promise, if the Lord permitted, to be with them on the time aforesaid. The justice hearing thereof, (whose name is Mr. Francis Wingate,) forthwith issued out his warrant to take me, and bring me before him, and in the mean time to keep a very strong watch about the house, where the meeting should be kept, as if we that were to meet together in that place did intend to do some fearful business, to the destruction of the country; when, alas! the constable, when he came in, found us only with our bibles in our hands, ready to speak and hear the word of God; for we were just about to begin our exercise. Nay, we had begun in prayer for the blessing of God upon our opportunity; intending to have preached the word of the Lord unto them there present; but the constable coming in prevented us. So that I was taken and forced to depart the room.
But had I been minded to have played the coward, I could have escaped, and kept out of his hands. For when I was come to my friend's house, there was whispering that that day I should be taken, for there was a warrant out to take me. Which when my friend heard, he being somewhat timorous, questioned whether we had best have our meeting or not. And whether it might not be better for me to depart, lest they should take me and have me before the justice, and after that send me to prison, (for he knew better than I what spirit they were of, living by them.) To whom I said, 'No, by no means; I will not stir, neither will I have the meeting dismissed for this. Come, be of good cheer, let us not be daunted; our cause is good, we need not be ashamed of it. To preach God's word, is so good a work, that we shall be well rewarded if we suffer for what;' or to this purpose. But as for my friend, I think he was more afraid of me than of himself.
After this I walked into the close, where I somewhat seriously considering the matter, this came into my mind: That I had showed myself hearty and courageous in my preaching, and had, blessed be grace! made it my business to encourage others; therefore, thought I, if I should now run and make an escape, it will he of a very ill savor in the country. For what will and weak and newly converted brethren think of it, but that I was not so strong in deed, as I was in word? Also I feared that if I should run, now there was a warrant out for me, I might by so doing make them afraid to stand, when great words only should be spoken to them. Besides, I thought, that seeing God of his mercy chose me to go upon the forlorn hope in this country; that is, to be the first that should be opposed for the gospel; if I should fly, it might be a discouragement to the whole body that might follow after. And further, I thought the world thereby would take occasion at my cowardliness to blaspheme the gospel, and would have some ground to suspect worse of me and my profession than I deserved. These things, with others considered by me, I came in again to the house, with a full resolution to keep the meeting, and not to go away. I could have been gone, about an hour before the office apprehended me; but I would not; for I was resolved to see the utmost of what they could say or do unto me. For, blessed be the Lord, I knew of no evil that I had said or done.
And so, as aforesaid, I began the meeting; but being prevented by the constable's coming in with his warrant to take me, I could not proceed. Yet before I went away I spake some few words of counsel and encouragement to the people, declaring to them that they saw we were prevented of our opportunity to speak and hear the word of God, and were like to suffer for the same; desiring them that they should not be discouraged; for it was a mercy to suffer upon so good account. For we might have been apprehended as thieves or murderers, or for other wickedness; but, blessed be God, it was not so, but we suffer as Christians for well doing; and we had better be the persecuted, than the persecutors, &c. But the constable and the justice's man waiting on us, would not be at quiet till they had me away, and that we departed the house. Yet because the justice was not at home that day, there was a friend of mine engaged for me to bring me to the constable on the morrow morning. Otherwise the constable must have charged a watch with me, or have secured me some other way, my crime was so great.
So on the next morning we went to the constable, and so to the justice. He asked the constable what we did, where we were met together, and what we had with us. I trow, he meant whether we had arms or not:: but when the constable told him that there were only a few of us met together to preach and hear the word, and no sign of any thing else, he could not well tell what to say. Yet because he had sent for me, he did adventure to put out a few proposals to me, which were to this effect, namely, What I did there? and why I did not content myself with following my calling? for it was against the law that such as I should be admitted to do as I did. To which I answered, that the intent of my coming thither, and to other places, was to instruct and counsel people to forsake their sins, and close in with Christ, lest they did miserably perish; and that I could do both these without confusion, (namely,) follow my calling, and preach the word also. At which words he (Justice Wingate) was in a chafe, as it appeared; for he said that he would 'break the neck of our meetings.' I said, 'It may be so.'
Then he wished me to get me sureties to be bound for me, or else he would send me to the jail. My sureties being ready, I called them in, and when the bond for my appearance was made, he told them, that they were bound to keep me from preaching; and that if I did preach, their bonds would be forfeited. To which I answered, that then I should break them; for I should not leave speaking the word of God-even to counsel, comfort, exhort, and teach the people among whom I came; and I thought this to be a work that had no hurt in it; but was rather worthy of commendation than blame. Whereat he told me, that if they would not be so bound, my mittimus must be made, and I sent to the jail, there to lie to the quarter sessions.
Now while my mittimus was making, the justice was withdrawn, and in comes an old enemy to the truth, Dr. Lindale, who, when he was come in, fell to taunting at me with many reviling terms. To whom I answered, that I did not come thither to talk with him, but with the justice. whereat he supposed that I had nothing to say for myself, and triumphed as if he had got the victory; charging and condemning me for meddling with that for which I could show no warrant. He asked me if I had taken the oaths? and said if I had not, it was pity but that I should be sent to prison, &c.
I told him, that if I was minded I could answer to any sober question that he should put to me. He then urged me again, how I could prove it lawful for me to preach? with a great deal of confidence of the victory. And at last, because he should see that I could answer him if I listed, I cited him to that in Peter, which saith, "As every man hath received the gift, even so let him minister the same," &c.
Lindale. Ay, saith he, to whom is that spoken?
Bunyan. To whom? said I; why to every man that hath received a gift from God. Mark, saith the apostle, "As every man hath received a gift from God," &c. And again, "You may all prophesy one by one." 1 Cor. xiv. Whereat the man was a little stopped, and went a softer pace. But not being willing to lose the day, he began again, and said:
Lindale. Indeed I do remember that I have read of one Alexander a coppersmith, who did much oppose, and disturb the apostles. (Aiming, it is like, at me, because I was a tinker).
Bunyan. To which I answered, that I also had read of very many priests and Pharisees, that had their hands in the blood of our Lord Jesus Christ.
Lindale. Ay, saith he, and you are one of those Scribes and Pharisees; for you, with a pretense, make long prayers to devour widows' houses.
Bunyan. I answered, that if he had got no more by preaching and praying than I had done, he would not be so rich as now he was. But that scripture coming into my mind, "Answer not a fool according to his folly," I was as sparing of my speech as I could, without prejudice to truth.
Now by this time my mittimus was made, and I committed to the constable to be sent to the jail in Bedford, &c. But as I was going, two of my brethren met with me by the way, and desired the constable to stay; supposing that they should prevail with the justice, through the favor of a pretended friend, to let me go at liberty. So we did stay, while they went to the justice, and after much discourse with him, it came to this; that if I would come to him again, and say some certain words to him, I should be released. Which when they told me, I said if the words was such as might be said with a good conscience, I should, or else I should not. So through their importunity I went back again, but not believing that I should be delivered. For I feared their spirit was too full of opposition to the truth, to let me go, unless I should in something or other, dishonor my God, and wound my conscience. Wherefore as I went, I lift up my heart to God for light, and strength, to be kept, that I might not do any thing that might either dishonor him, or wrong my own soul, or be a grief or discouragement to any that were inclining after the Lord Jesus Christ.
Well, when I came to the justice again, there was Mr. Foster of Bedford. (A right Judas.-J.B.). Who coming out of another room, and seeing me by the light of the candle (for it was dark night when I went thither) said unto me, 'Who is there? John Bunyan?' with such seeming affection as if he would have leaped in my neck and kissed me. Which made me somewhat wonder that such a man as he, with whom I had so little acquaintance, and besides, that had ever been a close opposer of the ways of God, should carry himself so full of love to me. but afterwards, when I saw what he did, it caused me to remember those sayings, " Their tongues are smoother than oil, but their words are drawn swords." And again, "Beware of men, &c." When I had answered him, that blessed be God I was well, he said, 'What is the occasion of your being here?' or to that purpose. To whom I answered, that I was at a meeting of people a little way off, intending to speak a word of exhortation to them; but the justice hearing thereof, was pleased to send his warrant, to fetch me before him, &c.
Foster. 'So,' said he, 'I understand. But well, if you will promise to call the people no more together, you shall have your liberty to go home; for my brother is very loth to send you to prison, if you will be but ruled.'
Bunyan. Sir said I, pray what do you mean by calling the people together? My business is not anything among them when they are come together, but to exhort them to look after the salvation of their souls, that they may be saved, &c.
Foster. Saith he, 'we must not enter into explication, or dispute now; but if you will say you will call the people no more together, you may have your liberty; if not, you must be sent away to prison.'
Bunyan. Sir, said I, I shall not force or compel any man to hear me ; but yet if I come into any place where there is a people met together, I should, according to the best of my skill and wisdom, exhort and counsel them to seek after the Lord Jesus Christ, for the salvation of their souls.
Foster. He said, that was none of my work; I must follow my calling, and if I would but leave off preaching, and follow my calling, I should have the justice's favor, and be acquitted presently.
Bunyan. To whom I said, that I could follow my calling and that too, namely, preaching the word. And I did look upon it as my duty to do them both, as I had an opportunity.
Foster. He said, to have any such meetings was against the law; and therefore he would have me leave off and say, I would call the people no more together.
Bunyan. To whom I said, that I durst not make any further promise; for my conscience would not suffer me to do it. And again, I did look upon it as my duty to do as much good as I could, not only in my trade, but also in communicating to all people wheresoever I came, the best knowledge I had in the word.
Foster. He told me, that I was the nearest the papists of any, and that he would convince me of it immediately.
Bunyan. I asked him wherein?
Foster. He said, in that we understood the scriptures literally.
Bunyan. I told him, that those that were to be understood literally, we understood them so; but or those that were to be understood otherwise, we endeavored so to understand them.
Foster. He said, 'Which of the scriptures do you understand literally?'
Bunyan. I said this, "He that believes shall be saved." This was to be understood just as it is spoken, that whosoever believeth in Christ, shall, according to the plain and simple words of the text, be saved.
Foster. He said that I was ignorant, and did. not understand the scriptures; 'for how (said he) can you understand them, when you know not the original Greek? &c.'
Bunyan. To whom I said, that if that was his opinion, that none could understand the scriptures but those that had the original Greek, &c., then but a very few of the poorest sort would be saved. This is harsh. Yet the scripture saith, That God hides his things from the wise and prudent, (that is, from the learned of the world,) and reveals them to babes and sucklings.
Foster. He said there were none that heard me but a company of foolish people.
Bunyan. I told him that there were the wise as well as the foolish that did hear me. And again, that those that are most commonly counted foolish by the world, are the wisest before God. Also, that God had rejected the wise, and mighty, and noble, and chosen the foolish and the base.
Foster. He told me that I made people neglect their calling; and that God had commanded people to work six days, and serve him on the seventh.
Bunyan. I told him, that it was the duty of people (both rich and poor) to look out for their souls on these days, as well as for their bodies. And that God would have his people "exhort one another daily, while it is called to-day."
Foster. He said again, that there were none but a company of poor simple ignorant people that came to hear me.
Bunyan. I told him, that the foolish and the ignorant had most need of teaching and information; and therefore it would be profitable for me to go on in that work.
Foster. Well, said he, to conclude, 'but will you promise that you will not call the people together any more? and then you may be released and go home.'
Bunyan. I told him, that I durst say no more than I had said; for I durst not leave off that work which God had called me to.
So he withdrew from me, and then came several of the justice's servants to me, and told me that I stood too much upon a nicety. Their master, they said, was willing to let me go; and if I would but say I would call the people no more together, I might have my liberty, &c. I told them there were more ways than one, in which a man might be said to call the people together. As for instance, if a man get upon the market-place, and there read a book, or the like, though he do not say to the people, Sirs, come hither amid hear; yet if they do come to him because he reads, he, by his very reading, may be said to call them together; because they would not have been there to hear, if he had not been there to read. And seeing this might be termed calling the people together, I durst not say I would not call them together; for then, by the same argument, my preaching might be said to call them together.
Then came the justice and 'Mr. Foster to me again. We had a little more discourse about preaching, but because the method of it is out of my mind, I pass it. And when they saw that I was at a point, and would not be moved nor persuaded, Mr. Foster told the justice that then he must send me away to prison; and that he would do well also, if he would present all them that were the cause of my coming among them to meetings. (This is the man that did at first express so much love to me.-J.B.). Thus we parted. And verily as I was going forth of the doors, I had much ado to forbear saying to them, that I carried the peace of God along with me. But I held my peace, and blessed be the Lord, went away to prison with God's comfort in my poor soul.
After I had lain in the jail five or six days, the brethren sought means again to get me out by bondsmen. (For so run my mittimus, that I should lie there until I could find sureties.) They went to a justice at Elstow, one Mr. Crumpton, to desire him to take bond for my appearing at the quarter sessions. At the first he told them he would, but afterwards he made a demur at the business, and desired first to see my mittimus, which run to this purpose: That I went about to several conventicles in this county, to the great disparagement of the government of the church of England, &c. When he had seen it, he said that there might be something more against me than was expressed in my mittimus; and that he was but a young man, therefore he durst not do it. This my jailer told me. Whereat I was not at all daunted, but rather glad, and saw evidently that the Lord had heard me; for before I went down to the justice, I begged of God, that if I might do more good by being at liberty than in prison, that then I might be set at liberty; but if not, his will be done. For I was not altogether without hopes, but that my imprisonment might be an awakening to the saints in the country, therefore I could not tell well which to choose. Only I in that manner did commit the thing to God. And verily at my return I did meet my God sweetly in the prison again, comforting me and satisfying me that it was his will and mind that I should be there.
When I came back again to prison, as I was musing at the slender answer of the justice, this word dropped in upon my heart with some life, "For he knew that for envy they had delivered him."
Thus have I, in short, declared the manner, and occasion of my being in prison, where I lie waiting the good will of God, to do with me as he pleaseth; knowing that not one hair of my head can fall to the ground without the will of my Father which is in heaven. Let the rage and malice of men be never so great, they can do no more, nor go no further than God permits them. But when they have done their worst, we know all things shall work together for good to them that love God. Farewell.
HIS EXAMINATION IN OPEN COURT AT BEFORD
Here is the sum of my examination, before Justice Keeling, Justice Chester, Justice Blundale, Justice Beecher, and Justice Snagg, &c.
After I had lain in prison above seven weeks, the quarter-sessions was to be kept in Bedford, for the county thereof; unto which I was to be brought; and when my jailer had set me before these justices, there was a bill of indictment preferred against me. The extent thereof was as followeth; 'that John Bunyan, of the town of Bedford, laborer, being a person of such and such conditions, hath (since such a time) devilishly and perniciously abstained from coming to church to hear divine service, and is a common upholder of several unlawful meetings and conventicles, to the great disturbance and distraction of the good subjects of this kingdom, contrary to the laws of our sovereign lord the king, &c.'
The Clerk. When this was read, the clerk of the sessions said unto me, What say you to this?
Bunyan. I said, that as to the first part of it, I was a common frequenter of the church of God. And was also, by grace, a member with those people, over whom Christ is the head.
Keeling. But, saith justice Keeling, (who was the judge in that court,) Do you come to church, (you know what I mean,) to the parish church, to hear divine service?
Bunyan. I answered, no, I did not.
Keeling. He asked me, Why?
Bunyan. I said, because I did not find it commanded in the word of God.
Keeling. He said, we were commanded to pray.
Bunyan. I said, but not by the common prayer-book.
Keeling. He said, How then?
Bunyan. I said, With the Spirit As the apostle saith, "I will pray with the Spirit, and with the understanding." 1 Cor. xiv. 15.
Keeling. He said, we might pray with the Spirit, with the understanding, and with the common prayer-book also.
Bunyan. I said that those prayers in the common prayer-book, were such as were made by other men, and not by the 'notions of the Holy Ghost within our hearts; and, as I said before, the apostle saith, he will pray with the Spirit and with the understanding: not with the Spirit and the common prayer-book.
Another Justice. What do you count prayer? Do you think it is to say a few words over before, or among a people?
Bunyan. I said, No, not so; for men might have many elegant, or excellent words, and yet not pray at all. But when a man prayeth, he doth through a sense of those things which he wants, (which sense is begotten by the Spirit,) pour out his heart before God, through Christ; though his words be not so many, and so excellent as others are.
Justices. They said that was true.
Bunyan. I said, this might be done without the common prayer-book.
Another. One of them said, (I think it was Justice Blundale, or Justice Snagg,) How should we know, that you do not write out your prayers first, and then read them afterwards to the people? This he spake in a laughing way.
Bunyan. I said, It is not our use, to take a pen and paper and write a few words thereon, and then go and read it over to a company of people.
Justice. But how should we know it? said he.
Bunyan. Sir, it is none of our custom, said I.
Keeling. But, said Justice Keeling, it is lawful to use common prayer, and such like forms; for Christ taught his disciples to pray, as John also taught his disciples. And further, said he, cannot one man teach another to pray? Faith comes by hearing; and one man may convince another of sin, and therefore prayers made by men, and read over, are good to teach, and help men to pray.
While he was speaking these words, God brought that word into my mind, in the eighth of Romans, at the 26th verse: (I say God brought it, for I thought not on it before; but as he was speaking, it came so fresh into my mind, and was set so evidently before, as if the scripture had said, 'take me, take me;') so when he had done speaking,
Bunyan. I said, Sir, the scripture saith, that "it is the Spirit that helpeth our infirmities; for we know not what we should pray for as we ought: but the Spirit itself maketh intercession for us, with groanings which cannot be uttered." Mark, said I, it doth not say the common prayer-book teacheth us how to pray, but the Spirit. "And it is the Spirit that helpeth our infirmities," saith the apostle; he doth not say it is the common prayer-book. And as to the Lord's prayer, although it be an easy thing to say Our Father, &c., with the mouth; yet there are very few that can, in the Spirit, say the two first words of that prayer; that is, that can call God their Father, as knowing what it is to be born again, and as having experience, that they are begotten of the Spirit of God: which if they do not, all is but babbling, &c.
Keeling. Justice Keeling said, that that was a truth.
Bunyan. And I say further, as to your saying that one man may convince another of sin, and that faith comes by hearing, and that one man may tell another how he should pray, &c., I say men may tell each other of their sins, but it is the Spirit that must convince them. (If any say now that God useth means; I answer, but not the common prayer-book, for this is none of his institution. It is the Spirit in the word that is God's ordinance.-J.B.) And though it be said that faith comes by hearing; yet it is the Spirit that worketh faith in the heart through hearing, or else "they are not profited by hearing." Heb. iv. 2. And that though one may tell another how he should pray; yet, as I said before, he cannot pray, nor make his condition known to God, except the Spirit help. It is not the common prayer-book that can do this. It is the Spirit that showeth us our sins, (John xvi. 16;) and the Spirit that showeth us a Savior, Matt. xi. 27. And the Spirit that stirreth up in our hearts desires to come to God, for such things as we stand in need of, even sighing out our souls unto him for them with groans which cannot be uttered. With other words to the same purpose. At this they were set.
Keeling. But, says Justice Keeling, what have you against the common prayer-book?
Bunyan, I said, Sir, if you will hear me, I shall lay down my reasons against it.
Keeling. He said I should have liberty; but first, said he, let me give you one caution; take heed of speaking irreverently of the common prayer-book: for if you do so, you will bring great damage upon yourself.
Bunyan. So I proceeded, and said, my first reason was, because it was not commanded in the word of God, and therefore I could not do it.
Another. One of them said, Where do you find it commanded in the scripture, that you should go to Elstow, or Bedford, and yet it is lawful to go to either of them, is it not?
Bunyan. I said, To go to Elstow or Bedford, was a civil thing, and not material, though not commanded; and yet God's word allowed me to go about my calling, and therefore if it lay there, then to go thither, &c. But to pray, was a great part of the divine worship of God, and therefore it ought to be done according to the rule of God's word.
Another. One of them said, He will do harm: let him speak no further.
Justice Keeling. Justice Keeling said, No, no, never fear him; we are better established than so; he can do no harm. We know the common prayer-book hath been ever since the apostles' time, and is lawful to be used in the church.
Bunyan. I said, Show me the place in the epistles, where the common prayer-book is written, or one text of scripture, that commands me to read it, and I will use it. But yet, not-withstanding, said I, they that have a mind to use, they have their liberty; that is, I would not keep them from it; but for our parts, we can pray to God without it. Blessed be his name!
With that one of them said, Who is your God? Beelzebub? Moreover, they often said, that I was possessed with the spirit of delusion, and of the devil. All which sayings I passed over; the Lord forgive them! And further, I said, blessed be the Lord for it, we are encouraged to meet together, and to pray, and exhort one another; for we have had the comfortable presence of God among us. For ever blessed be his name!
Keeling. Justice Keeling called this 'pedlar's French,' saying that I must leave off my canting. (The Lord open his eyes!)
Bunyan. I said, that we ought to exhort one another daily, while it is called to-day, &c.
Keeling. Justice Keeling (then) said, that I ought not to preach And asked me where I had my authority? with many other such like words.
Bunyan. I said, that I would prove that it was lawful for me, and such as I am, to preach the word of God.
Keeling. He said unto me, By what scripture?
Bunyan. I said, by that in the first epistle of Peter, the ivth chapter the 11th verse, and Acts the xviiith, with other scriptures, which he would not suffer me to mention. But said,
Keeling. Hold, not so many. Which is the first?
Bunyan I said, this. "As every man hath received the gift, even so let him minister the same one to another, as good stewards of the manifold grace of God. If any man speak, let him speak as the oracles of God," &c.
Keeling. He said, let me a little open that scripture to you. As every man hath received the gift; that is, said he, as every man hath received a trade, so let him follow it. If any man hath received a gift of tinkering, as thou hast done, let him follow his tinkering. And so other men their trades. And the divine his calling, &c.
Bunyan. Nay, sir, said I, but it is most clear, that the apostle speaks here of preaching the word; if you do but compare both the verses together the next verse explains this gift what it is; saying, "if any man speak, let him speak as the oracles of God:" so that it is plain, that the Holy Ghost doth not so much in this place exhort to civil callings, as to the exercising of those gifts that we have received from God. I would have gone on, but he would not give me leave.
Keeling. He said, we might do it in our families, but not otherways.
Bunyan. I said, if it was lawful to do good to some, it was lawful to do good to more. If it was a good duty to exhort our families, it is good to exhort others: but if they held it a sin to meet together to seek the face of God, and exhort one another to follow Christ, I should sin still: for so we should do.
Keeling. He said, he was not so well versed in scripture as to dispute, or words to that purpose. And said, moreover, that they could not wait upon me any longer; but said to me. Then you confess the indictment, do you not?
Now, and not till now, I saw I was indicted.
Bunyan. I said, this I confess, we have had many meetings together, both to pray to God, and to exhort one another, and we have had the sweet comforting presence of the Lord among us for our encouragement; blessed be his name therefore. I confessed myself guilty no otherwise.
Keeling. Then, said he, hear your judgment. You must be had back again to prison, and there lie for three months following; and at three months' end, if you do not submit to go to church to hear divine service, and leave your preaching, you must be banished the realm; and if, after such a day as shall be appointed you to be gone, you shall be found in this realm, &c., or be found to come over again without special license from the king, &c., you must stretch by the neck for it, I tell you plainly.
And so he bid my jailer have me away.
Bunyan. I told him, as to this matter, I was at a point with him; for if I was out of prison to-day, I would preach the gospel again to-morrow, by the help of God. To which one made me some answer; but my jailer pulling me away to be gone, I could not tell what he said.
Thus I departed from them. And I can truly say, I bless the Lord Jesus Christ for it, that my heart was sweetly refreshed in the time of my examination, and also afterwards, at my returning to the prison; so that I found Christ's words more than bare trifles, where he saith, "he will give a mouth and wisdom, even such as all the adversaries shall not be able to gainsay nor resist." And that his peace no man can take from us.
Thus have I given you the substance of my examination. The Lord make these things profitable to all that shall read or hear them. Farewell.
HIS INTERVIEW WITH THE CLERK OF THE PEACE
(The substance of some discourse had between the Clerk of the Peace and myself; when he came to admonish me, according to the tenor of that law, by which I was in prison.)
WHEN I had lain in prison other twelve weeks; and now not knowing what they intended to do with me, upon the third of April, (1661,) comes Mr. Cobb unto me, (as he told me,) being sent by the justices to admonish me and demand of me submittance to the church of England, &c. The extent of our discourse was as followeth:
Cobb. When he was come into the house he sent for me out of my chamber; who, when I was come unto him, he said, Neighbor Bunyan, how do you do?
Bunyan. I thank you, sir, said I, very well, blessed be the Lord.
Cobb. Saith he, I come to tell you, that it is desired, you would submit yourself to the laws of the land, or else at the next sessions it will go worse with you, even to be sent away out of the nation, or else worse than that.
Bunyan. I said, that I did desire to demean myself in the world, both as becometh a man and a Christian.
Cobb. But saith he, you must submit to the laws of the land, and leave off those meetings which you was wont to have: for the statute law is directly against it; and I am sent to you by the justices to tell you, that they do intend to prosecute the law against you, if you submit not.
Bunyan. I said, sir, I conceive that that law by which I am in prison at this time, doth not reach or condemn, either me, or the meetings which I do frequent: that law was made against those, that being designed to do evil in their meetings, make the exercise of religion their pretense to cover their wickedness. It doth not forbid the private meetings of those that plainly and simply make it their only end to worship the Lord, and to exhort one another to edification. My end in meeting with others is simply to do as much good as I can, by exhortation and counsel, according to that small measure of light which God hath given me, and not to disturb the peace of the nation.
Cobb. Every one will say the same, said he; you see the late insurrection in London, under what glorious pretenses they went, and yet indeed they intended no less than the ruin of the kingdom and commonwealth. (This probably refers to Venner's Fifth Monarchy men.)
Bunyan. That practice of theirs, I abhor, said I; yet it doth not follow, that because they did so, therefore all others will do so. I look upon it as my duty to behave myself under the king's government, both as becomes a man and a Christian; and if an occasion was offered me, I should willingly manifest my loyalty to my prince, both by word and deed.
Cobb. Well, said he, I do not profess myself to be a man that can dispute; but this I say, truly neighbor Bunyan, I would have you consider this matter seriously, and submit yourself; you may have your liberty to exhort your neighbor in private discourse, so be you do not call together an assembly of people; and truly you may do much good to the church of Christ, if you would go this way; and this you may do, and the law not abridge you of it. It is your private meetings that the law is against.
Bunyan. Sir, said I, if I may do good to one by my discourse, why may I not do good to two? And if to two, why not to four, and so to eight, &c.
Cobb. Ay, saith he, and to a hundred, I warrant you.
Bunyan. Yes, sir, said I, I think I should not be forbid to do as much good as I can.
Cobb. But, saith he, you may but pretend to do good, and indeed, notwithstanding, do harm, by seducing the people. You are therefore denied your meeting so many together, lest you should do harm.
Bunyan. And yet, said I, you say the law tolerates me to discourse with my neighbor; surely there is no law tolerates me to seduce any one. Therefore if I may by the law discourse with one, surely it is to do him good; and if I by discoursing may do good to one, surely, by the same law, I may do good to many.
Cobb. The law, saith he, doth expressly forbid your private meetings; therefore they are not to be tolerated.
Bunyan. I told him, that I would not entertain so much uncharitableness of that parliament in the 35th of Elizabeth, or of the queen herself, as to think they did by that law intend the oppressing of any of God's ordinances, or the interrupting of any in the way of God. Men may, in the wresting of it, turn it against the way of God; but take the law in itself, and it only fighteth against those that drive at mischief in their hearts and meetings, making religion only their cloak, color, or pretense; for so are the words of the statute. "If any meetings, under color or pretense of religion," &c.
Cobb. Very good; therefore the king seeing that pretenses are usually in, and among people, so as to make religion their pretense only; therefore he, and the law before him, doth forbid such private meetings, and tolerates only public; you may meet in public.
Bunyan. Sir, said I, let me answer you in a similitude. Set the case, that at such a wood corner, there did usually come forth thieves to do mischief; must there therefore a law be made, that every one that cometh out there shall be killed? May not there come out true men as well as thieves, out from thence? Just thus is it in this case. I do think there may be many, that may design the destruction of the commonwealth; but it doth not follow therefore that all private meetings are unlawful Those that transgress, let them be punished: and if at any time I myself, should do any act in my conversation such as doth not become a man and a Christian, let me bear the punishment. And as for your saying I may meet in public, if I may be suffered, I would be gladly do it: let me but have meetings enough in public, and I shall care the less to have them in private. I do not meet in private, because I am afraid to have meetings in public. I bless the Lord that my heart is at that point, that if any man can lay any thing to my charge, either in doctrine or practice, in this particular, that can be proved error or heresy, I am willing to disown it, even in the very market-place. But if it be truth, then to stand to it to the last drop of my blood. And sir, said I, you ought to commend me for so doing. To err, and to be a heretic, are two things. I am no heretic, because I will not stand refractorily to defend any one thing that is contrary to the word. Prove any thing which I hold to be an error, and I will recant it.
Cobb. But, goodman Bunyan, said he, methinks you need not stand so strictly upon this one thing, as to have meetings of such public assemblies. Cannot you submit, and notwithstanding do as much good as you can in a neighborly way, without having such meetings.
Bunyan. Truly, sir, said 1, I do not desire to commend myself, but to think meanly of myself; yet when I do most despise myself; taking notice of that small measure of light which God hath given me; also that the people of the Lord (by their own saying) tire edified thereby. Besides, when I see that the Lord, through grace, hath in some measure blessed my labor, I dare not but exercise that gift which God hath given me for the good of the people. And I said further, that I would willingly speak in public if I might.
Cobb. He said, that I might come to the public assemblies and hear. What though you do not preach, you may bear. Do not think yourself so well enlightened, and that you have received a gift so far above others, but that you may hear other men preach; or to that purpose.
Bunyan. I told him I was as willing to be taught as to give instruction, and I looked upon it as my duty to do both. For, said I, a man that is a teacher, he himself also may learn from another that teacheth; as the apostle saith "Ye may all prophecy one by one, that all may learn." That is, every man that hath received a gift from God, he may dispense it, that others may be comforted; and when he hath done, he may hear, and learn, and be comforted himself of others.
Cobb. But, said he, what if you should forbear awhile, and sit still, till you see further how things will go?
Bunyan. Sir, said I, Wickliffe saith, that he which leaveth off preaching and hearing the word of God for fear of excommunication of men, he is already excommunicated of God, and shall in the day of judgment be counted a traitor to Christ.
Cobb. Ay, saith he, they that do not hear, shall be so counted indeed; do you therefore hear.
Bunyan. But, sir, said I, he saith, he that shall leave off either preaching or hearing, &c. That is, if he hath received a gift for edification, it is his sin, if he doth not lay it out in a way of exhortation and counsel, according to the pro-portion of his gift; as well as to spend his time altogether in hearing others preach.
Cobb. But, said he, how shall we know that you have received a gift?
Bunyan. Said I, let any man hear, and search, and prove the doctrine by the Bible.
Cobb. But will you be willing, said he, that two indifferent persons shall determine the case, and will you stand by their judgment.
Bunyan. I said, Are they infallible?
Cobb. He said, No.
Bunyan. Then, said I, it is possible my judgment may be as good as theirs. But yet I will pass by either, and in this matter be judged by the scriptures; I am sure that is infallible, and cannot err.
Cobb. But, said he, who shall be judge between you, for you take the scriptures one way, and they another.
Bunyan. I said, the Scripture should, and that by comparing one scripture with another; for that will open itself, if it be rightly compared. As for instance, if under the different apprehensions of the word Mediator, you would know the truth of it, the scripture opens it, and tells us, that he that is a mediator must take up the business between two, and "a mediator is not a mediator of one, but God is one," and "there is one Mediator between God and man, even the man Christ Jesus." So likewise the scripture calleth Christ a complete, or perfect, and able high-priest. That is opened in that he is called man, and also God. His blood also is discovered to be effectually efficacious by the same things. So the scripture, as touching the matter of meeting together, &c., doth likewise sufficiently open itself and discover its meaning.
Cobb. But are you willing, said he, to stand to the judgment of the Church?
Bunyan. Yes, sir, said I, to the approbation of the church of God. (The church's judgment is best expressed in scripture.) We had much other discourse, which I cannot well remember, about the laws of the nation, and submission to governments; in which I did tell him, that I did look upon myself as bound in conscience to walk according to all righteous laws, and that, whether there was a king or no; and that if I did any thing that was contrary, I did hold it my duty to bear patiently the penalty of the law that was provided against such offenders; with many more words to the like effect. And said, moreover, that to cut off all occasions of suspicion from any, as touching the harmlessness of my doctrine in private, I would willingly take the pains to give any one the notes of all my sermons; for I do sincerely desire to live quietly in my country, and to submit to the present authority.
Cobb. Well, neighbor Bunyan, said he, but indeed I would wish you seriously to consider of these things, between this and the quarter sessions, and to submit yourself. You may do much good if you continue still in the land. But, alas! what benefit will it be to your friends, or what good can you do to them, if you should be sent away beyond the seas into Spain, or Constantinople, or some other remote part of the world? Pray be ruled.
Jailer. Indeed, sir, I hope he will be ruled.
Bunyan. I shall desire, said I, in all godliness and honesty to behave myself in the nation whilst I am in it. And if I must be so dealt withal, as you say, I hope God will help me to bear what they shall lay upon me. I know no evil that I have done in this matter, to be so used. I speak as in the presence of God.
Cobb. You know, said he, that the scripture saith, "The powers that be, are ordained of God."
Bunyan. I said, Yes, and that I was to submit to the king as supreme, also to the governors, as to them that are sent by him.
Cobb. Well then, said he, the king then commands you, that you should not have any private meetings; because it is against his law, and he is ordained of God, therefore you should not have any.
Bunyan. I told him, that Paul did own the powers that were in his day, as to be of God; and yet he was often in prison under them for all that. And also, though Jesus Christ told Pilate that he had no power against him, but of God, yet he died under the same Pilate; and yet, said I, I hope you will not say, that either Paul, or Christ, was such as did deny magistracy, and so sinned against God in slighting the ordinance. Sir, said I, the law hath provided two ways of obeying: The one, to do that which I in my conscience do believe that I am bound to do actively, and where I cannot obey actively, there I am willing to lie down, and to suffer what they shall do unto me. At this he sat still, and said no more; which when he had done, I did thank him for his civil and meek discoursing with me; and so we parted. 0! that we might meet in heaven! Farewell.
EFFORTS OF HIS WIFE TO OBTAIN HIS RELEASE
(Here followeth a Discourse between my Wife and the Judges, with others,
touching my deliverance at the Assizes following; the which I took from her own mouth.)
AFTER I had received this sentence of banishing, or hanging, from them, and after the former admonition, touching the determination of the justices, if I did not recant; just when the time drew nigh, in which I should have abjured, or have done worse, (as Mr. Cobb told me,) came the time in which the king was to be crowned. Now at the coronation of kings, there is usually a releasement of divers prisoners, by virtue of his coronation; in which privilege also I should have had my share, but that they took me for a convicted person, and therefore, unless I sued out a pardon, (as they called it,) I could have no benefit thereby, notwithstanding. Yet forasmuch as the coronation proclamation did give liberty from the day the king was crowned to that day twelvemonth to sue them out, therefore, though they would not let me out of prison, as they let out thousands, yet they could not meddle with me, as touching the execution of their sentence; because of the liberty offered for the suing out of pardons. Whereupon I continued in prison till the next assizes, which are called Midsummer assizes, being then kept in August, 1661.
Now at that assizes, because I would not leave any possible means unattempted that might be lawful; I did, by my wife, present a petition to the judges three times, that I might be heard, and that they would impartially take my case into consideration.
The first time my wife went, she presented it to Judge Hale,* who very mildly received it at her that he would do her and me the best good he could; but he feared, he said, he could do none. The next day again, lest they should, through the multitude of business, forget me, we did throw another petition into the coach to Judge Twisdon; who, when he had seen it, snapped her up, and angrily told her that I was a convicted person, and could not be released, unless I would promise to preach no more, &c.
* This was the justly celebrated Sir MATTHEW HALE. Lord Campbell, in his recent work, "The Lives of the Chief Justices of England," says of this great and good man, that in 1660, when he was appointed Chief Baron of the Exchequer, he wrote and adopted the following rules:
"1. That in the administration of justice, I am entrusted for God, the king, and country; and therefore-
2. That it be done uprightly, deliberately, resolutely.
3 That I rest not upon my own understanding or strength, but implore and red upon the direction and strength of God.
4. That In the execution of justice, I carefully lay aside my own passions, and not give way to them, however provoked.
5. That I be wholly intent upon the business I am about, remitting all other cares and thoughts as unreasonable and interruptions.
6. That I suffer not myself to be prepossessed with any judgment at all, till the whole business, and both parties be heard.
7. That I never engage myself in the beginning of any cause, but reserve myself unprejudiced till the whole be heard.
8. That in business capital, though my nature prompt me to pity, yet to consider there is a pity also due to the country.
9. That I be not too rigid in matters purely conscientious, where all the harm is diversity of judgment.
10. That I be not biassed with compassion to the poor; or favored to the rich in point of justice.
11. That popular or court applause, or distaste, have no influence in any thing that I do, in point of distribution of justice.
12. Not to be solicitous what men will say or think, so long as I keep myself exactly according to the rule of justice.
13 If in criminal cases, it be a measuring cast, to incline to mercy and acquittal,
14. In criminal cases that consist merely in words, where no harm ensues, moderation is justice.
15. In criminal cases of blood, If the fact be evident, severity Is justice.
16. To abhor all private solicitations, of what kind soever, and by whomsoever, in matters depending.
17. To charge my servants not to interpose in any matter whatever,-not to take more than their known fees,-not to give any undue precedence In causes,-nor to recommend counseL
18. To be short and sparing at meals, that I may be the fitter for business.'
It need hardly be added, that Judge Hale was a religious man, and never, on any account whatever, intruded on the Sabbath. In his early career, he invariably spent sixteen hours each day in study; and eventually filled the office of Lord Chief Justice of the King's Bench.
This was the man, before whom Elizabeth BUNYAN (Bunyan's first wife, Mary, died some years before,) new appeared in open court, to plead the cause of her imprisoned husband. This was the great man who evidently respected and pitied her, and gave her his best counsel, when the Inferior judges sought to thrust her and her cause aside. His whole bearing, as here described, is in striking harmony with his just principles and noble character.
Well, after this, she yet again presented another to Judge Hale, as he sat on the bench, who, as it seemed, was willing to give her audience. Only Justice Chester being present, stepped up and said, that I was convicted in the court, and that I was a hot-spirited fellow, or words to that purpose; whereat he waived it, and did not meddle therewith. But yet, my wife being encouraged by the High Sheriff, did venture once more into their presence, (as the poor widow did to the unjust judge,) to try what she could do with them for my liberty, before they went forth of the town. The place where she went to them, was to the Swan Chamber, where the two judges, and many justices and gentry of the country were in company together. She then coming into the chamber with a bashed face, and a trembling heart, began her errand to them in this manner.
Woman. My lord, (directing herself to Judge Hale,) I make bold to come once again to your lordship to know what may be done with my husband.
Judge Hale. To whom he said, Woman, I told thee before I could do thee no good; because they have taken that for a conviction which thy husband spoke at the sessions; and unless there be something done to undo that, I can do thee no good.
Woman. My lord, said she, he is kept unlawfully in prison. They clapped him up before there were any proclamations against the meetings. The indictment also is false. Besides, they never asked him whether he was guilty or no; neither did he confess the indictment.
One of the Justices. Then one of the justices that stood by, whom she knew not, said, My lord, he was lawfully convicted.
Woman. It is false, said she. For when they said to him, do you confess the indictment? he said only this, that he had been at several meetings, both where there was preaching the word, and prayer; and that they had God's presence among them.
Judge Twisdon. Whereat Judge Twisdon answered very angrily, saying, Whatever you think, we can do what we list. Your husband is a breaker of the peace, and is convicted by the law, &c. Whereupon Judge Hale called for the statute book.
Woman. But said she, my lord, he was not lawfully convicted.
Chester. Then Justice Chester said, My lord, he was lawfully convicted.
Woman. It is false, said she; it was but a word of discourse that they took for a conviction, (as you heard before.)
Chester. But it is recorded, woman, it is recorded, said Justice Chester. As if it must be of necessity true because it was recorded. With which words he often endeavored to stop her mouth, having no other argument to convince her, but 'it is recorded, it is recorded.'
Woman. My lord ,said she, I was awhile since at London, to see if I could get my husband's liberty ; arid there I spoke with my Lord Barkwood, one of the house of lords, to whom I delivered a petition, who took it of me and presented to some of the rest of. the house of lords, for my husband's releasement; who, when they had seen it ,said, that they could not release him, but had committed his releasement to the to the judges, at the next assizes. This he told me; and now I come to, you too see if any thing may be done in this business, and you give neither releasement nor relief.
To which they gave her no answer, but made as if they heard her not.
Chester. Only Justice Chester was often up with this, he is convicted, and it is recorded.
Woman. If it be, it is false, said she.
Chester. My lord, said Justice Chester, he is a pestilent fellow; there is not such a fellow in the country again.
Twisdon. What, will your husband leave preaching? If he will do so, then send for him.
Woman. My lord, said she, he dares not leave preaching, as long as he can speak.
Twisdon. See here, what should we talk any more about such a fellow? Must he do what he lists? He is a breaker of the peace.
Woman. She told him again, that he desired to live peaceably, and to follow his calling, that his family might be maintained; and moreover said, my lord, I have four small children, that cannot help themselves, of which one is blind, and have nothing to live upon, but the charity of good people.
Hale. Hast thou four children? said Judge Hale; thou art but a young woman to have four children.
Woman. My lord, said she, I am but mother-in-law to them, having not been married to him yet full two years. Indeed I was with child when my husband was first apprehended: but being young and unaccustomed to such things, said she, I being dismayed at the news, fell into labor, and so continued for eight days, and then was delivered, but my child died.
Hale. Whereat, he looking very soberly on the matter, said, 'Alas, poor woman!'
Twisdon. But Judge Twisdon told her, that she made poverty her cloak; and said, moreover, that he understood, I was maintained better by running up and down a preaching, than by following my calling.
Hale. What is his calling ? said Judge Hale.
Answer. Then some of the company that stood by, said, A tinker, my lord.
Woman. Yes, said she, and because he is a tinker, and a poor man; therefore he is despised, and cannot have justice. (This answer is instinct with moral energy, as the preceding one Is with modesty and pathos. The woman who uttered it was worthy to share her husband's immortality. Mr. St. John observes, "It Is abundantly manifest that the wife of this humble preacher fell not short of an Arria, or a Lady Russel in soul. Of this fine high minded Englishwoman, little, by far too little, is known." J. N. B.
Hale. Then Judge Hale answered, very mildly, saying, I tell thee, woman, seeing it is so, that they have taken what thy husband spake, for a conviction; thou must either apply thyself to the king, or sue out his pardon, or get a writ of error.
Chester. But when Justice Chester heard him give her this counsel; and especially (as she supposed) because he spoke of a writ of error, he chafed, and seemed to be very much offended; saying, My lord, he will preach and do what he lists.
Woman. He preacheth nothing but the word of God, said she.
Twisdon. He preach the word of God! said Twisdon; (and withal, she thought he would have struck her) he runneth up and down, and doth harm.
Woman. No, my lord, said she, it is not so. God hath owned him, and done much good by him.
Twisdon. God? said he; his doctrine is the doctrine of the devil.
Woman. My lord, said she, when the righteous Judge shall appear, it will be known, that his doctrine is not the doctrine of the devil.
Twisdon. My lord, said he to Judge Hale, do not mind her, but send her away.
Hale. Then said Judge Hale, I am sorry, woman, that I can do thee no good; thou must do one of those three things aforesaid, namely; either to apply thyself to the king, or sue out his pardon, or get a writ of error; but a writ of error will be cheapest.
Woman. At which Chester again seemed to be in a chafe, and put off his hat, and as she thought, scratched his head for anger. But when I saw, said she, that there was no prevailing to have my husband sent for, though I often desired them that they would send for him, that he might speak for himself, telling them, that he could give them better satisfaction than I could, in what they demanded of him; with several other things, which now I forget. Only this I remember, that though I was somewhat timorous at my first entrance into the chamber, yet before I went out, I could not but break forth into tears; not so much because they were so hard-hearted against me, and my husband; but to think what a sad account such poor creatures will have to give at the coming of the Lord, when they shall there answer for all things whatsoever they have done in the body, whether it be good, or whether it be bad.
So when I departed from them, the book of statute was brought, but what they said of it, I know nothing at all, neither did I hear any more from them.
ARTS OF HIS ENEMIES TO KEEP HIM IN PRISON
(Some Carriages of the Adversaries of God's Truth with me at the next Assizes, which was on the nineteenth of the first month, 1662.)
I SHALL pass by what befell between these two assizes, how I had, by my jailer, some liberty granted me, more than at the first; and how I followed my wonted course of preaching taking all occasions that were put into my hand to visit the people of God, exhorting them to be steadfast in the faith of Jesus Christ, and to take heed that they touched not the Common prayer, &c., but to mind the word of God, which giveth direction to Christians in every point, being able to make the man of God perfect in all things through faith in Jesus Christ, and thoroughly to furnish him up to all good works. Also how I (having, I say, somewhat more liberty) did go to see Christians at London; which my enemies hearing of, were so angry, that they had almost cast my jailer out of his place, threatening to indict him, and to do what they could against him. They charged me also, that I went thither to plot and raise division, and make insurrection; (which God knows, was a slander;) whereupon my liberty was more straitened than it was before; so that I must not look out of the door.
Well, when the next sessions came, which was about the 10th of the 11th month, I did expect to have been very roundly dealt withal; but they passed me by, and would not call me. So that I rested till the assizes, which were the 19th of the first month following; and when they came; because I had a desire to come before the judge, I desired my jailer to put my name into the calendar among the felons, and made friends of the judge and high sheriff, who promised that I should be called; so that I thought what I had done might have been effectual for the obtaining of my desire. But all was in vain. For when the assizes came, though my name was in the calendar, and also though both the judge and sheriff had promised that I should appear before them, yet the justices and the clerk of the peace, did so work it about, that I, notwithstanding, was deferred, and might not appear.
And though I say, I do not know of all their carriages towards me, yet this I know, that the clerk of the peace (Cf. Chapter 3- Mr. Cobb) did discover himself to be one of my greatest opposers; for, first he came to my jailer, and told him that I must not go (town before the judge, and therefore must not be put into the calendar; to whom my jailer said, that my name was in already. He bid him put me out again; my jailer told him that he could not: for he had given the judge a calendar with my name in it, and also the sheriff another. At which he was very much displeased, and desired to see that calendar that was yet in my jailer's hand, who, when he had given it him, he looked on it, and said it was a false calendar; he also took the calendar and blotted out my accusation, as my jailer had writ it; (which accusation I cannot tell what it was, because it was so blotted out;) and he himself put in words to this purpose: that John Bunyan was committed in prison; being lawfully convicted, for upholding unlawful meetings and conventicles, &c. But yet for all this, fearing that what he had done, unless he added thereto, would not do, he first ran to the clerk of the assizes; then to the justices; and afterwards, because he would not leave any means unattempted to hinder me, he comes again to my jailer, and tells him, that if I did go down before the judge, and was released, he would make him pay my fees, which he said were due to him; and further told him, that he would complain of him at the next quarter sessions for making false calendars; though my jailer himself, as I afterwards learned, had put in my accusation worse than in itself it was by far. And thus was I hindered and prevented at that time also from appearing before the judge: and left in prison. Farewell.